The need for an environmental optimization of paper mills is a long-felt concern
The term “cogeneration” refers to the simultaneous production of process heat and electricity from a single energy input. All types of power plants can be employed (e.g., steam power plants, gas turbines, combined cycle power plants, internal combustion engines); the extracted heat largely varies in entity and temperature depending on technology, size, and operation parameters.
Europe is one of the main actors in the pulp and paper industry. The annual production of pulp in Europe was about 41.0 million t/y, constituting 22% of world’s total wood pulp production; this made Europe the second largest pulp producer. Finland and Sweden together covered 57% of European total wood pulp production. Paper and board production totaled 390.9 million t/y worldwide; 25.3% of this amount was produced in Europe. Italy was one of the leading paper and paperboard producers (9.5 million t/y). The number of paper mills in Europe was 887, located mainly in Italy, Germany, France, Spain, and the UK